Thursday, November 22, 2012

HORMONAL DISEASES & TESTS (Part-1)


What is Hormones?

          It is a Chemical Substance that secretes from some organs & glands of the body, carried by blood to different parts of the body & stimulate inhibit the function of that part of the body or other Hormones.


Hormone


Human body has many hormones, which are helping in any functions of the body by keeping balance between them. But if this balance is interfered, different signs-symptoms & disease produced. This imbalance can be detected by many laboratory tests or investigations. 

Hormone producing glands in body:
  •   Pituitary gland
  •   Thyroid gland
  •   Adrenal gland
  •   Testes
  •   Ovary
  •   Pancreas
  •   Parathyroid gland
  •   Hypothalamus etc.
Hormone Producing gland. Hormonal Gland

 

Different hormones in Human body:
Endocrine system, Hormonal gland


  • Adrenocortical Hormone
  • Epinephrine
  • Nor-epinephrine
  • Testosterone
  • Aldosterone 
  •  Growth Hormone
  • Thyroid Stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
  • Prolactin
  • Corticotrophin
  • Antidiuretic Hormone
  • Calcitonin
  • Progesterone
  • Estrogen
  • Thyroxin
  • Para hormone 
  •  Glucagon
  •  Insulin
  • Oxytocin
  • Digestive Hormone – Gastrin, Multiline, Secretin, Cholecystokinin etc.

Pancreas:

Insulin Produced by the Beta cell of pancreas & it controls blood glucose level after mixing with blood. From any cause if the level or the functional capacity of this hormone reduced, diabetes may arise. At this time, insulin secretion by the pancreas stimulates by giving drugs or maintains insulin level by giving exogenous insulin. 

Pancreas, Gall bladder, Hormone

Tests for Diabetes: 

1.     If blood glucose is 7 mmole/dl or more at morning in fasting & 2 hour after the breakfast 11.1 mmole/dl or more, then it is counted as Diabetes. 

2.     With the symptoms of diabetes if at any time Random plasma glucose is more than 14 mmole/dl, then it is counted as Diabetes.

3.     OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test):
            Preparations for these tests are:
·         Normal diet for 3 days.
·         8 hours fasting before the test.
·         30 minutes rest (without any smoking)
·         If the blood glucose is as below before & after taking 75gm glucose, then it is consider as Diabetes. 

                     FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar) – 7 mmole/L or more &
                      After taking 75gm glucose, 11.1 mmole/L or more.

4.     Test for Sugar in Urine.



If insulin level increased in blood or if one doesn’t eat adequate food after taking diabetic drug – blood glucose level reduced than normal, which is called Hypoglycemia. At this condition blood glucose level reduced less than 3.5 mmole/L.

                                                                                                 

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